Staphylococcal meningitis is caused by Staphylococcus bacteria. When it is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria, it usually develops as a complication of surgery or as an infection that spreads through the blood from another site (hematogenous spread).
Unusual posture, with the head and neck arched backwards (opisthotonos)
Exams and Tests
The doctor or nurse will examine the patient. This will usually show:
Fast heart rate
Mental status changes
If the doctor thinks meningitis is possible, a lumbar puncture ("spinal tap") is done to remove a sample of spinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF) for testing. If you have a spinal fluid shunt, the sample may be taken from this instead.
Thigpen MC, Whitney CG, Messonnier NE, et al. Emerging Infections Programs Network. Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1998-2007. N Engl J Med. 2011 May 26; 364:2016-2025.
Tunkel AR, Van de Beek D, Scheld WM. Acute meningitis. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 84.
Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.