Pneumocystis jiroveci was a relatively rare infection before the AIDS epidemic. Before the use of preventive antibiotics for the condition, most people in the United States with advanced AIDS would develop this infection.
Pneumocystis pneumonia in those with AIDS usually develops slowly over days to weeks or even months, and is less severe. People with pneumocystis pneumonia who do not have AIDS usually get sick faster and are more acutely ill.
Cough, often mild and dry
Shortness of breath, especially with activity (exertion)
Sputum exam to check for fungus that causes the infection
ß-1,3 glucan level in the blood
Antibiotics can be given by mouth (orally) or through a vein (intravenously), depending on the severity of the illness.
People with low oxygen levels and moderate to severe disease are often prescribed corticosteroids as well.
Pneumocystis pneumonia can be life-threatening, causing respiratory failure that can lead to death. People with this condition need early and effective treatment. For moderate to severe pneumocystis pneumonia in people with AIDS, the short term use of corticosteroids has decreased the incidence of death.
Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.