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Temperature measurement

Definition

The measurement of body temperature may be helpful for monitoring whether a person is ill, or whether treatment is working. A high temperature is a fever.

How the test is performed

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends against using glass thermometers with mercury. The glass can break, and mercury is a poison.

Electronic thermometers are the most recommended type. The temperature is seen on an easy-to-read display. A probe can be placed in the mouth, rectum, or armpit.

  • Mouth -- place the probe under the tongue and close the mouth. Breathe through the nose, and use the lips to hold the thermometer tightly in place. Leave the thermometer in the mouth for 3 minutes or until the device beeps.
  • Rectum -- this method is for infants and small children who are not able to hold a thermometer safely in their mouth. Place petroleum jelly on the bulb of a rectal thermometer. Place the small child face down on a flat surface or lap. Spread the buttocks and insert the bulb end about 1/2 to 1 inch into the anal canal. Be careful not to insert it too far. Struggling can push the thermometer in further. Remove after 3 minutes or when the device beeps.
  • Armpit -- place the thermometer in the armpit, with the arm pressed against the body. Wait for 5 minutes before reading.

Plastic strip thermometers change color to show the temperature. This method is the least accurate.

  • Place the strip on the forehead and read it after 1 minute while the strip is in place.
  • Plastic strip thermometers for the mouth are also available.

Always clean the thermometer before and after using. You can use cool, soapy water or rubbing alcohol.

Electronic ear thermometers are common and easy to use. However, some users report that the results are less accurate than probe thermometers.

How to prepare for the test

Wait at least 1 hour after intense exercise or a hot bath before measuring body temperature. Wait for 20 to 30 minutes after smoking, eating, or drinking a hot or cold liquid.

Normal Values

The average normal body temperature is 98.6°F (37°C). The normal temperature can vary by:

  • Age (in children over 6 months, daily temperature can vary by 1 to 2 degrees)
  • Person
  • Time of day (often highest in the evening)
  • Where on the body the temperature was taken

Body temperature can be raised by:

  • Being active
  • Being in a high temperature or high humidity
  • Eating
  • Feeling strong emotions
  • Menstruating (in women)
  • Taking certain medicines
  • Teething (in a young child -- but no higher than 100°F)
  • Wearing heavy clothing

What abnormal results mean

If the reading on the thermometer is more than 1 to 1.5 degrees above your normal temperature, you have a fever. Fevers may be a sign of:

  • Blood clots
  • Cancer
  • Certain types of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus
  • Diseases in the intestines, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
  • Infection (both serious and non-serious)
  • Many other medical problems

Fevers that are too high or too low can be serious, and you should consult a health care provider.

Often, older people do not run a high temperature, even if they are sick.

See also:

References

Mackowiak PA. Temperature regulation and pathogenesis of fever. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 50.

Nield LS, Kamat D. Fever. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 169.


Review Date: 5/15/2012
Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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