A pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth in the pituitary gland, the part of the brain that regulates the body's balance of hormones.
Tumor - pituitary
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Most pituitary tumors are noncancerous (benign). Up to 20% of people have pituitary tumors. However, many of these tumors do not cause symptoms and are never diagnosed during the person's lifetime.
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary helps control the release of hormones from other endocrine glands, such as the thyroid and adrenal glands. The pituitary also releases hormones that directly affect body tissues, such as bones and the breast's milk glands. These hormones include:
Rarely, these symptoms may occur suddenly and can be severe.
Signs and tests
Your health care provider will perform a physical examination. The provider will note any problems with double vision and visual field, such as a loss of peripheral vision or the ability to see in certain areas.
If the tumor can be surgically removed, the outlook is fair to good, depending upon whether the entire tumor is removed.
The most serious complication is blindness. This can occur if the optic nerve is seriously damaged.
The tumor or its removal may cause permanent hormone imbalances. The affected hormones may need to be replaced.
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if you develop any symptoms of a pituitary tumor.
Melmed S, Kleinberg D. Anterior pituitary. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 8.
Ari S. Eckman, MD, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.